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Shared Bicycle Rental Systems and Helmets
10/7/2010 11:25:06 AM

Shared Bicycle Rental Systems and Helmets

Summary: There are good questions about the recently popular shared bicycle rental systems and helmet requirements. The success of the movement could be hampered by requiring helmets, but head injuries could persuade many not to use the bikes as well. At present, rental users are following the same helmet regulations as other riders in each community. To date, reported injury rates have been low.

In cities throughout the world new bicycle rental systems (cycle hire schemes in UK English, Velib in French) are being installed. The pioneer was La Rochelle, France, in 1974, and others have started up since. But the movement has taken off following the very visible success of the 2007 Parisian Velib system. The Paris system now has more than 20,000 bikes and 1,639 stations. More than 100 programs are now operating in more than 150 cities around the world. Bikes are picked up and dropped off at automated stations, typically in central business districts. After membership fees, most rides are free or very cheap for the first 30 minutes and more expensive after that, encouraging their use for short rides between their urban stations.

Rental bikes have always raised a helmet question, since the renter may not have a helmet with them. Shops generally provide rental helmets to their customers, but an automated bike stand on the street poses a different problem. The systems are designed to appeal to casual renters for short trips, including those who did not plan to rent a shared bike when they left home and would not have a helmet along. Requiring those renters to use a helmet would discourage them from using the system. Early adopters are likely to be experienced bicyclists, and many would have helmets, but the real success of these systems comes from attracting new users who are not habitual riders.

In almost all cases, the rental system sponsors are recommending but not requiring helmets. Where there are local helmet laws they do not usually apply to adults, who are the typical users of an urban shared bike system. The notable exception is Melbourne, (see below) where the law requires helmets for all ages. Brisbane is considering a system as well. In the US, Seattle is planning one, and has an all-ages helmet law that presumably would apply. So in all locations, the rental bike riders are not being singled out for special treatment or requirements. Since most of the systems are recent, time will tell if usage rates for the ones in localities requiring adult helmets will differ solely because of the helmet requirement.

Bike sharing programs in the US are concerned about the legal liabilties of both the program and the helmet question. In our society, anyone head-injured on a bicycle without a helmet whose family is desperate for funds to pay medical bills and support the injured one finds an attorney who sues everyone in sight. That may include the bike share program, the bike supplier, the car driver involved, the ambulance crew, bystanders who tried to help, the hospital and more. Fault is not an issue, it's just a search for deep pockets and those with liability insurance coverage. Helmet companies rise and fall with the skill of their attorneys and the ability of their staff to support lawsuits. The shared bike programs who advocate helmets but do not supply them could be particularly vulnerable to accusations that they knew helmets were an essential piece of safety gear but did not supply one. Again, time and court precedents will tell.

Folding Helmets?
Folding a helmet can make it easier to carry, although it still requires the same volume of impact foam. There are at least two folding helmets on the market now, and a third has been announced in France. There should be more folding designs to come as the market for them increases. But there are problems with folding a helmet and maintaining its structural integrity. The most recent design by Dahon does not meet the CPSC standard, so it is not available in the US market. It is also expensive to produce and expensive to buy at $130 retail. And folded or not, the helmet is another item for a pedestrian to carry, unless planning in advance to use a shared rental bicycle. That is not a particular problem for backpack users, but those with purses or briefcases have to carry the helmet elsewhere.

Rental Helmets
We have a page up on rental helmets with some information on what commercial rental companies do to provide helmets to their customers.

London Cycle Hire
The very successful Barclays Cycle Hire scheme in London (also known as the Boris Bike Scheme for strongly pro-bike London Mayor Boris Johnson) logged more than 750,000 trips in less than two months, according to Transport for London. For the 6,000 bicycles that works out to just over two trips per day per bicycle. A spokesperson for TfL was quoted in the September 28, 2010 issue of the London Telegraph saying "There have been five incidents since the scheme launched on 30 July where a cycle hire user has been injured." That would be an astounding bike safety record anywhere in the world, but it is not likely that TfL has good statistics yet on how many injuries there have been presenting at hospital emergency rooms, and that they are stating how many reports they have received.

After press reports of two head injuries on London scheme bikes, a spokesperson for the non-profit, Brake, was quoted in the Telegraph article calling for helmet use by those hiring cycles, provoking a reaction from those opposed to helmet laws. If the actual numbers were as low as TfL announced for 750,000 trips, they would have a point.
Londoner Dave Escandell gives a balanced view on this legal blog page, noting that it is very early to be making statements about the safety of the scheme. Many early users of the system are regular bicycle users and have been bringing helmets with them.

Melbourne Bike Share

Melbourne's system was launched in April of 2010. It is sized at 50 bike stations in the central business district and 600 bicycles. As with all other Australian states, Victoria requires helmets for bicycle riders of all ages. The sponsors have given thought to the helmet question:
"In line with Victorian road laws, the use of helmets is compulsory for all users. Helmets are available for free as part of corporate memberships and for purchase with individual annual subscriptions. Helmets are also available at selected local Central Business District retail outlets located near the bike stations, with some retailers offering discounts of up to 20 per cent for Melbourne Bike Share users."

"Helmets are not supplied with the bikes. The main reason for this is due to safety. We cannot compromise on the safety of our users; if we were to provide helmets with the bikes we would need to check every helmet after each ride to ensure they are not damaged - and are clean. Those using the scheme will need to bring their own helmet or purchase one from a handy location near the bike station. In addition, subscribers to Melbourne Bike Share will have the option of purchasing a low cost helmet with their annual membership."
The Melbourne system is about one-tenth the size of London's. It was launched in winter, with anti-helmet law proponents gleefully declaring ridership to be a failure, but the test of acceptance will occur in the Australian spring and summer.

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute
4611 Seventh Street South
Arlington, VA 22204-1419 USA


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